ProPublica has published a handy cheat sheet that outlines the people responsible for the financial crisis and what, if anything, has happened to them. On the whole, not much has been done to the major players in the financial crisis.
Banks that failed were purchased by other banks. C-level executives that were brought up on civil charges generally settled the cases with a fine and no admission of wrongdoing. Most criminal investigations have stalled or were never started.
The mortgage securitization process and those involved in it has recently been the subject of investigations, but it is doubtful that we'll see much happening in the near-term. Some of this is tied up in the robosigning settlement talks, but this is a mess that will take a while to unravel.
The article is worth a read, although there are a few themes that become very apparent. Criminal charges? None. Civil suits? Settled for fines and no admission of wrongdoing. Future job prospects? Everyone involved is extremely wealthy and most have found work in the financial services industry.